Article Publish Status: FREE
Abstract Title:

Nodding syndrome in Mundri county, South Sudan: environmental, nutritional and infectious factors.

Abstract Source:

Afr Health Sci. 2013 Jun ;13(2):183-204. PMID: 24235915

Abstract Author(s):

P S Spencer, K Vandemaele, M Richer, V S Palmer, S Chungong, M Anker, Y Ayana, M L Opoka, B N Klaucke, A Quarello, J K Tumwine

Article Affiliation:

P S Spencer


BACKGROUND: Nodding Syndrome is a seizure disorder of children in Mundri County, Western Equatoria, South Sudan. The disorder is reported to be spreading in South Sudan and northern Uganda.

OBJECTIVE: To describe environmental, nutritional, infectious, and other factors that existed before and during the de novo 1991 appearance and subsequent increase in cases through 2001.

METHODS: Household surveys, informant interviews, and case-control studies conducted in Lui town and Amadi village in 2001-2002 were supplemented in 2012 by informant interviews in Lui and Juba, South Sudan.

RESULTS: Nodding Syndrome was associated with Onchocerca volvulus and Mansonella perstans infections, with food use of a variety of sorghum (serena) introduced as part of an emergency relief program, and was inversely associated with a history of measles infection. There was no evidence to suggest exposure to a manmade neurotoxic pollutant or chemical agent, other than chemically dressed seed intended for planting but used for food. Food use of cyanogenic plants was documented, and exposure to fungal contaminants could not be excluded.

CONCLUSION: Nodding Syndrome in South Sudan has an unknown etiology. Further research is recommended on the association of Nodding Syndrome with onchocerciasis/mansonelliasis and neurotoxins in plant materials used for food.

Study Type : Human Study

Print Options

Key Research Topics

Sayer Ji
Founder of

Subscribe to our informative Newsletter & get Nature's Evidence-Based Pharmacy

Our newsletter serves 500,000 with essential news, research & healthy tips, daily.

Download Now

500+ pages of Natural Medicine Alternatives and Information.

This website is for information purposes only. By providing the information contained herein we are not diagnosing, treating, curing, mitigating, or preventing any type of disease or medical condition. Before beginning any type of natural, integrative or conventional treatment regimen, it is advisable to seek the advice of a licensed healthcare professional.

© Copyright 2008-2022, Journal Articles copyright of original owners, MeSH copyright NLM.