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Abstract Title:

Silymarin inhibits the progression of Ehrlich solid tumor via targeting molecular pathways of cell death, proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis in female mice.

Abstract Source:

Mol Biol Rep. 2022 Mar 19. Epub 2022 Mar 19. PMID: 35305227

Abstract Author(s):

Maggie E Amer, Maher A Amer, Azza I Othman, Doaa A Elsayed, Mohamed Amr El-Missiry, Omar A Ammar

Article Affiliation:

Maggie E Amer

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Plant-derived phytochemicals have been reported to exert anticancer activity. This study investigated the antitumor role of silymarin (Silybum marianum) (SMN) and its molecular targets in Ehrlich solid tumor xenografts in vivo.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Female Swiss albino mice were divided into three groups (of five animals each) that were engrafted with Ehrlich tumor (ET) cells with or without SMN treatment. The 3rd groups treated with DMSO only vehicle control group. A significant reduction in animal body mass and tumor volume/weight were observed in xenografted mice treated with SMN. SMN modulated oxidative stress in tumors while enhancing the antioxidant levels in mouse serum. SMN activated both mitochondrial and death receptor-related apoptosis pathways and induced cell cycle arrest, marked by a significant downregulation of cyclin D1 in SMN-treated tumors. Significant decreases in RNA content and protein expression levels of Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen were observed in ET cells. Additionally, SMN downregulated vascular endothelial growth factor and nuclear factor-kappa B levels indicating anti-angiogenesis activity of this agent. SMN upregulated the expression of E-cadherin in tumor tissue suggesting, that SMN has potential ability to inhibit metastasis. Tumor tissue from SMN-treated animals showed a remarkable degeneration and reduction in the neoplastic cell density.

CONCLUSIONS: The anticancer effect was associated with apparent apoptosis in neoplastic cells with abundance of multifocal necrotic areas. SMN was found to inhibit ET growth via enhancing apoptosis, inhibition of cell division and reduction in angiogenesis in vivo. Hypothetical scheme of SMN antitumor effects (mechanism of signaling) in solid ET in vivo. SMN anticancer effect may be mediated by molecular mediators that affect proliferation, cell cycle activity, apoptotic pathways, angiogenesis, and metastasis.

Study Type : Animal Study

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