Abstract Title:

Mechanisms linking the gut microbiome and glucose metabolism.

Abstract Source:

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Mar 3:jc20154251. Epub 2016 Mar 3. PMID: 26938201

Abstract Author(s):

Kristina M Utzschneider, Mario Kratz, Chris J Damman, Meredith Hullar

Article Affiliation:

Kristina M Utzschneider


CONTEXT: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with gastrointestinal dysbiosis involving both compositional and functional changes in the gut microbiome. Changes in diet and supplementation with probiotics and prebiotics (i.e. fermentable fibers) can induce favorable changes in gut bacterial species and improve glucose homeostasis.

OBJECTIVE: This paper will review the data supporting several potential mechanisms whereby gut dysbiosis contributes to metabolic dysfunction, including microbiota driven increases in systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations, changes in bile acid metabolism, alterations in short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, alterations in gut hormone secretion, and changes in circulating branched-chain amino acids.

METHODS: Data for this review were identified by searching English language references from PubMed and relevant articles.

CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the mechanisms linking the gut microbiome to glucose metabolism, and the relevant compositional and functional characteristics of the gut microbiome, will help direct future research to develop more targeted approaches or novel compounds aimed at restoring a more healthy gut microbiome as a new approach to prevent and treat T2DM and related metabolic conditions. Secondary Abstract: This review details potential mechanisms linking gut dysbiosis to metabolic dysfunction, include LPS, bile acids, short chain fatty acids, gut hormones and branched-chain amino acids.

METHODS: Data for this review were identified by searching PubMed and references from relevant English language articles published before September 2015. Search terms included"dysbiosis","microbiome","gut microbiota","diabetes","glucose metabolism","intestinal permeability","branched chain fatty acids","short chain fatty acids","prebiotics","probiotics","synbiotics","LPS","endotoxin","PYY","GLP-1","GLP-2","butyrate"and"small intestinal bacterial overgrowth".

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