Article Publish Status: FREE
Abstract Title:

Highly polymerized proanthocyanidins (PAC) components from blueberry leaf and stem significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection via inhibition of ACE2 and viral 3CLpro enzymes.

Abstract Source:

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2022 Apr 20 ;615:56-62. Epub 2022 Apr 20. PMID: 35605406

Abstract Author(s):

Kazuhiro Sugamoto, Yuri L Tanaka, Akatsuki Saito, Yoh Goto, Takayuki Nakayama, Tamaki Okabayashi, Hisato Kunitake, Kazuhiro Morishita

Article Affiliation:

Kazuhiro Sugamoto


With the current worldwide pandemic of COVID-19, there is an urgent need to develop effective treatment and prevention methods against SARS-CoV-2 infection. We have previously reported that the proanthocyanidin (PAC) fraction in blueberry (BB) leaves has strong antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T-lymphocytic leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). In this study, we used Kunisato 35 Gou (K35) derived from the rabbit eye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton), which has a high PAC content in the leaves and stems. The mean of polymerization (mDP) of PAC in K35 was the highest of 7.88 in Fraction 8 (Fr8) from the stems and 12.28 of Fraction 7 (Fr7) in the leaves. The composition of BB-PAC in K35 is that most are B-type bonds with a small number of A-type bonds and cinchonain I as extension units. A strong antiviral effect was observed in Fr7, with a high polymerized PAC content in both the leaves and stems. Furthermore, when we examined the difference in the action of BB-PAC before and after SARS-CoV-2 infection, we found a stronger inhibitory effect in the pre-infection period. Moreover, BB-PAC Fr7 inhibited the activity of angiotensin II converting enzyme (ACE2), although no effect was observed in a neutralization test of pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2. The viral chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) of SARS-CoV-2 was also inhibited by BB-PAC Fr7 in leaves and stems. These results indicate that BB-PAC has at least two different inhibitory effects, and that it is effective in suppressing SARS-CoV-2 infection regardless of the time of infection.

Study Type : In Vitro Study

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