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Abstract Title:

Network Pharmacology of Ginseng (Part II): The Differential Effects of Red Ginseng and Ginsenoside Rg5 in Cancer and Heart Diseases as Determined by Transcriptomics.

Abstract Source:

Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2021 Sep 30 ;14(10). Epub 2021 Sep 30. PMID: 34681234

Abstract Author(s):

Alexander Panossian, Sara Abdelfatah, Thomas Efferth

Article Affiliation:

Alexander Panossian

Abstract:

C.A.Mey. is an adaptogenic plant traditionally used to enhance mental and physical capacities in cases of weakness, exhaustion, tiredness, or loss of concentration, and during recovery. According to ancient records, red ginseng root preparations enhance longevity with long-term intake. Recent pharmacokinetic studies of ginsenosides in humans and our in vitro study in neuronal cells suggest that ginsenosides are effective when their levels in blood is low-at concentrations from 10to 10M. In the present study, we compared the effects of red ginseng root preparation HRG80(HRG) at concentrations from 0.01 to 10,000 ng/mL with effects of white ginseng (WG) and purified ginsenosides Rb1, Rg3, Rg5 and Rk1 on gene expression in isolated hippocampal neurons. The aim of this study was to predict the effects of differently expressed genes on cellular and physiological functions in organismal disorders and diseases. Gene expression profiling was performed by transcriptome-wide mRNA microarray analyses in murine HT22 cells after treatment with ginseng preparations. Ingenuity pathway downstream/upstream analysis (IPA) was performed with datasets of significantly up- or downregulated genes, and expected effects on cellular function and disease were identified by IPA software. Ginsenosides Rb1, Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 have substantially varied effects on gene expression profiles (signatures) and are different from signatures of HRG and WG. Furthermore, the signature of HRG is changed significantly with dilution from 10,000 to 0.01 ng/mL. Network pharmacological analyses of gene expression profiles showed that HRG exhibits predictable positive effects in neuroinflammation, senescence, apoptosis, and immune response, suggesting beneficial soft-acting effects in cancer, gastrointestinal, and endocrine systems diseases and disorders in a wide range of low concentrations in blood.

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