Article Publish Status: FREE
Abstract Title:

Ketogenic Diet Modulates Neuroinflammation via Metabolites from Lactobacillus reuteri After Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Adolescent Mice.

Abstract Source:

Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2022 Apr 30. Epub 2022 Apr 30. PMID: 35499776

Abstract Author(s):

Dilirebati Dilimulati, Fengchen Zhang, Shuai Shao, Tao Lv, Qing Lu, Mengqiu Cao, Yichao Jin, Feng Jia, Xiaohua Zhang

Article Affiliation:

Dilirebati Dilimulati


Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) is associated with a range of neural changes which is characterized by axonal injury and neuroinflammation. Ketogenic diet (KD) is regarded as a potential therapy for facilitating recovery after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, its effect on rmTBI has not been fully studied. In this study, we evaluated the anti-neuroinflammation effects of KD after rmTBI in adolescent mice and explored the potential mechanisms. Experimentally, specific pathogen-free (SPF) adolescent male C57BL/6 mice received a sham surgery or repetitive mild controlled cortical impacts consecutively for 7 days. The uninjured mice received the standard diet, and the mice with rmTBI were fed either the standard diet or KD for 7 days. One week later, all mice were subjected to behavioral tests and experimental analysis. Results suggest that KD significantly increased blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) levels and improved neurological function. KD also reduced white matter damage, microgliosis, and astrogliosis induced by rmTBI. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signaling pathway, which was mediated by indole-3-acetic acid (3-IAA) from Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) in gut and activated in microglia and astrocytes after rmTBI, was inhibited by KD. The expression level of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) in inflammatory cells, which mediates the NF-κB pathway, was also attenuated by KD. Taken together, our results indicated that KD can promote recovery following rmTBI in adolescent mice. KD may modulate neuroinflammation by altering L. reuteri in gut and its metabolites. The inhibition of indole/AHR pathway and the downregulation of TLR4/MyD88 may play a role in the beneficial effect of KD against neuroinflammation in rmTBI mice.

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