Article Publish Status: FREE
Abstract Title:

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 primes immunological memory in human nasal-associated lymphoid tissue.

Abstract Source:

Clin Immunol. 2021 Sep 8 ;231:108850. Epub 2021 Sep 8. PMID: 34506944

Abstract Author(s):

Waleed H Mahallawi, Talal M Aljeraisi

Article Affiliation:

Waleed H Mahallawi


BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, has resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality in humans. Little is known regarding the development of immunological memory following SARS-CoV-2 infection or whether immunological memory can provide long-lasting protection against reinfection. Urgent need for vaccines is a considerable issue for all governments worldwide.

METHODS: A total of 39 patients were recruited in this study. Tonsillar mononuclear cells (MNCs) were co-cultured in RPMI medium and stimulated with the full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in the presence and absence of a CpG-DNA adjuvant. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was utilised to measure the specific antibody response to the spike protein in the cell culture supernatants.

RESULTS: The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein primed a potent memory B cell-mediated immune response in nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) from patients previously infected with the virus. Additionally, spike protein combined with the CpG-DNA adjuvant induced a significantly increased level of specific anti-spike protein IgG antibody compared with the spike protein alone (p < 0.0001, n = 24). We also showed a strong positive correlation between the specific anti-spike protein IgG antibody level in a serum samples and that produced by MNCs derived from the same COVID-19-recovered patients following stimulation (r = 0.76, p = 0.0002, n = 24).

CONCLUSION: Individuals with serological evidence of previous SARS-CoV-2 exposure showed a significant anti-spike protein-specific memory humoral immune response to the viral spike protein upon stimulation. Additionally, our results demonstrated the functional response of NALT-derived MNCs to the viral spike protein. CpG-DNA adjuvant combined with spike protein induced significantly stronger humoral immune responses than the spike protein alone. These data indicate that the S protein antigen combined with CpG-DNA adjuvant could be used as a future vaccine candidate.

Study Type : Human Study

Print Options

Key Research Topics

Sayer Ji
Founder of GreenMedInfo.com

Subscribe to our informative Newsletter & get Nature's Evidence-Based Pharmacy

Our newsletter serves 500,000 with essential news, research & healthy tips, daily.

Download Now

500+ pages of Natural Medicine Alternatives and Information.

This website is for information purposes only. By providing the information contained herein we are not diagnosing, treating, curing, mitigating, or preventing any type of disease or medical condition. Before beginning any type of natural, integrative or conventional treatment regimen, it is advisable to seek the advice of a licensed healthcare professional.

© Copyright 2008-2022 GreenMedInfo.com, Journal Articles copyright of original owners, MeSH copyright NLM.