Abstract Title:

Adherence to Mediterranean diet and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: A case control study.

Abstract Source:

Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2022 02 ;47:346-350. Epub 2021 Nov 15. PMID: 35063225

Abstract Author(s):

Zahra Darabi, Azam Ahmadi Vasmehjani, Mina Darand, Abbas Ali Sangouni, Mahdieh Hosseinzadeh

Article Affiliation:

Zahra Darabi


OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. The Mediterranean diet as a plant-based diet has a beneficial effect on mental health. The present study was designed to investigate the association between adherence to Mediterranean diet and odds of ADHD in Iranian children.

METHODS: This age and gender matched case-control study was conducted on 360 children 7-13 years old in Yazd, Iran. Children were categorized into new diagnosed case (n = 120) and control groups (n = 240). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSMIV-TR) was used to diagnose ADHD. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to measure food intake. The association of adherence to the Mediterranean with the odds ratio of ADHD examined by logistic regression.

RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounders including energy intake, parents' educational level, economic status, family history ADHD and physical activity, the children in the highest tertile of adherence to Mediterranean diet had a lower odd of ADHD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.49; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.27-0.89) compared to the children in the lowest. In addition, an association was observed between increasing trend adherence to Mediterranean diet and decrease odds of ADHD after full adjustments (P for trend<0.001).

CONCLUSION: We found that higher adherence to Mediterranean diet containing vegetables, legumes, fruits and nuts, grains, and fish could decrease the odds of ADHD in primary school children. Further studies are suggested to approve our vision.

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